This website is a humble attempt to draw the attention of the world to the huge treasure of Megaliths of India, the lesser-known relics of Indian tribals.

Wednesday, 2 September 2015


The Hindu reports that Prof. V.Ramabrahmam has discovered a megalithic site in Palem near Kallur. Earlier in between 1997 and 2000 he had found six megalithic sites in Chittor district of Andhra Pradesh.
The site in Palem is interspersed with dolmens, cists burials, stone circles and mehirs and statues. 

The Hindu states that huge anthropomorphic statues which could be the depiction of head priests or king of the tribe, marks the site. Locally these are known as Pandavula Gudi, Pandava banda, Pandava gattu or Daddinala Banda.

Dr.Ramabrahmam and Sivakumar Challa of Indian Archaeology Research Group found a dolmen with a half anthropomorphic statue at Palem, near Kallur in Andhra Pradesh. Here two half anthropomorphs can be seen to have been were joined together. The villagers consider them as horns of a divine ox which they call as Devara Yadhu. 

Mr Challa told to The Hindu that a port hole is carved on the eastern side of the monument to let the spirit go out.BRW was collected in situ from the site which they believe to date back to 500 BC.
Credit: The Hindu.

Monday, 24 August 2015

The Hargarhis of Jharkhand: A Brief Study of the Megaliths of Jharkhand

My latest paper on the Megaliths of Jharkhand:

Thursday, 20 August 2015

Megalith vandalised

The ancient megalithic burial which is now vandalised.

    23 deg 59' 15.6" N    
85 deg 26' 16.4" E

 The megalithic burial was discovered by me some 15/16 years ago. But prior to talking about the monument itself let me describe the surroundings and other finds in and around the site. 

The engraved stones are assumed to be mortars, but I hold them be yoni stones.

I sit beside a few more of the engraved stones in the field

One of the many sacred Mahua trees. All of them have similar large holes on them. Note carefully a few engraved mortar/yoni stones can also be seen below the tree.

The burial is located in an open field between the Silwar and the Juljul Hills to its North and South respectively. The site is interspersed with Mahua (Madhuca Indica) trees and stones that are engraved in their middle which the archaeologists hold as mortars or grinding stones.

At one time there were about a hundred of such mortars but gradually their numbers receded as understandably the villagers were towing these stones away. 
It was difficult to fathom why so many mortars were here ? Strangely similar stones can be found in distant England and Ireland where these are labelled as Bullauns and water collected in the middle is believed to posses magical healing powers.

Examining these supposedly mortars I concluded that these were yoni or vulva stones used for some unknown ritualistic purpose in the past. 

The Hazaribagh Gazetteer of the 19th cent declared that Buddhist remains as idols and stupas were found from around the Silwar Hill. 

Sadly neither the exact location of such a find is known nor its present whereabouts. This locality seems to be a potential area for such a find where Tantric Buddhism was possibly being practiced. The numerous stone yonis in the open field lends credence to such an assumption.

One of the better looking yonis with truncated legs. This relic is now lost. (The poor quality of the photograph is regretted)

Secondly this was the region where Tantric Buddhism flourished.
Although Tantric Buddhism may have been practiced here but the stone yonis surely predate this period. 

Till a few years ago the engraved stones and the old Mahua  Trees in the field which comprise large holes were worshipped by old villagers as Khudarwaan Gosaiwn (translated in to English this term stands for engraved deities ) during the Asadia Puja in the Asad month of July. 

This worship was undoubtedly for agriculture and large produce, clearly evident that the veneration has it source in the yoni worship dating to the Neolithic era. In this period cracks, holes were revered as the yoni believed to be representation of the Mother Goddess, remains of the now defunct Fertility Cult. This field must have been a major cultic site of the Great Mother once in hoary times evident from the scattered yonis.

The vicinity within a radius of 2 kms is interspersed with ancient megalithic sites and also with a large cupule site of great antiquity. 

It was about 15/16 year ago in one of my field trips I stumbled upon this site comprising of the megalithic burial, the yoni stones and the sacred Mahua trees. 

The megalith makers in the past employed the already existing engraved stones in the field to construct the burial under discussion. This therefore confirms that the yonis are of earlier date than that of the burial. 

Note closely, the engraved mortar/yoni stones have been used to construct this monument.

Sadly in our last visit to the site we were shocked to see that the megalithic burial has been dug out and the yields have been taken away. The vandalism of the ancient monument made it impossible for us to know the type of burial it was.

The current photograph of the ancient megalithic burial after its destruction . What could be more sad ?

Jharkhand megaliths normally house pot burials but this burial gave an inkling that this may have had been different. We were also deprived of the  contents of the grave. We are now unable to confirm to what age this monument belong, Chalcolithic or Iron Age or was if from the historical era  ?

Pot-shards collected in-situ from the vandalised burial

A Point and a Side Scraper collected from inside the pit.

I collected the following from she spot:

Broken shards of Black, Red, Painted Red, Black and Red, Black on Red pottery and even two stone tools called Side Scraper and a Point.
What was also painful that the remaining engraved mortar/yoni stones had also been taken away.

Monday, 8 June 2015

LAOS' jar TYPE megalithic site found in jharkhand

Two large megaliths with jar type holes carved on their flat tops.

Long: 850 24’ 57.6”  Lat: 230 41” 49.2”

A few kms from the district headquarters of Ramgarh in the  Jharkhand state of East India is a village called Huhua. In the outskirts of this village is a small megalithic site that closely resembles the Laos' Plain of Jar type megalithic site. 

However there is a difference between these two sites. 

A panorama of the entire Huhua megalithic site with the inclined male amlaka stone. The rest of the standing stones has jar type holes at their top that perhaps signify their female genders

If the Laos site is spread to many acres of land that house thousands of such jar type megaliths there, the Huhua site is relatively smaller as there are only 7 stones that are of the jar type which have holes on their flattened tops.

Two more jar type female stones with holes in their tapered tops

The jar type stones in Huhua could be smaller in comparison to that of Laos' but is indeed quite large and heavy. One stone has an amlaka type structure at its top. Amlakas are piece of architecture that can be seen atop a Hindu temple. We do not know whether the structure was meant to be an amalaka signifying the Hinduisation of the pre/non Aryan megalithic site or was it meant to serve as a male turban. 

The Amlaka at the top of the columned menhir though is a rare feature but can also be seen in a few other megalithic sites of Jharkhand as that of Basantpur and Lohardagga etc. Both the turbaned and the ones with holes incised at their top have designs engraved, embossed and even drawn on them.

One of the six squares; this has cupules on its surface and sits beside a fallen jar type megalith

Six box type square stones lie on the floor which although are rare is yet quite a popular megalithic structure of Jharkhand. One of them has cupules engraved on it.   

The local villagers worship the stones during the Hindu festival of Shiva Ratri when the male Shiva marries his female counterpart Shakti or Parwati transforming him into an androgynous deity.

Two more of the jar type female stones

Connecting Huhua to marriage makes us understand that perhaps this ancient megalithic site was constructed with the intention of creating this as a cult site associated with fertility.
The one with the amlaka at its top could be the male stone suggesting that it could be the burial/memorial stone of a king. The jar type megaliths which have  large holes on their apexes could denote the female vulva representative of the queen or female nobles.

I believe it would not be correct to relate this megalithic site with any of the present day megalithic tribes as that of the Mundas, Asurs, Oraons and the Hos as their monuments do not reveal any similarities with the one of Huhua.

The male stone with the amlaka or turban on it head flanked by three jar type female stones with holes on their tapered crowns.

There are no written documents to show the reason of the similarites of these megalithic sites of Laos and Huhua. The most logical conclusion for this phenomenon is  the possible contact between these two far flung lands of Vietnam and India that must have given rise to the Jar type megaliths in these two countries. Excavation is mandatory to confirm both this speculation and the date of Huhua.

Huhua is oriented to the Summer and the Winter Solstice sunrises and sets respectively.


Megaliths of Mizoram:

Blog on Brahmagiri megaliths:

First ever song composed on a megalith in India. Rajat Chandra sings on the fascinating megaliths of Punkri Birwadih:

Megalithic burials of the dolmen kind of Andhra Pradesh:

Rare megalithic sites discovered in Chattisgarh:

More than 200 megalithic sites found in Dhamtari and Mahasamund districts of Chattisgarh. Visit:

Megaliths of Jharkhand go to

Copper beads found during excavations in megaliths of Kerala. Read on:

A huge mysterious Peru type feature of the letter VI has been discovered on a hillock in Gujarat by Geology scholars. Chances are that the feature could be man made. Read on...

The 'kodakkal' or the 'Umbrella Stones', a type of unique dolmens typical only to Kerala lie in utter neglect. As-Prof Devdas now heads a study on the megaliths of Kerala. Visit:

125 megaliths have been discovered in the region of Junapani in Vidharba.

About 3000 year old megaliths have been discovered in Nagpur Amravati road.

3000 year old megaliths have been discovered in a college campus of Khammam of A.P. College authorities have planned to protect them. Great Job. Hope there were more like them.

The legendary Burjhaom megaliths of Kashmir: